Monday, November 30, 2009

The Formation of the Canon of Scripture

Bishop MARK, Antiochian Orthodox Church:
The Formation of the Scriptures.

Bishop MARK, Antiochian Orthodox Church:
The Formation of the Scriptures.

( Another, more detailed, presentation )


Presbytera Jeannie Constantinou,
from an Eastern Orthodox perspective:

The Septuagint
The Oral Tradition

The Canon - Part 1
The Canon - Part 2
The Canon - Part 3
The Canon - Part 4
The Canon - Part 5

The Gnostic Works - Part 1
The Gnostic Works - Part 2


David Bercot, from a Protestant perspective:

Saint Jerome & The Septuagint - Part 1
Saint Jerome & The Septuagint - Part 2
Saint Jerome & The Septuagint - Part 3


( see menu to the left )


Byzantine & Medieval Studies Sites


Deuterocanonical Books in the New Testament

Dictionary of Orthodox Terminology


Early Christian Manuscripts, Patristic Literature

Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ( by St. John Damascene )


Jewish Roots of the Trinity

Jewish Roots of Holy Icons

Jewish Roots of Intercessory Prayers


North American Society for Christian Arabic Studies


On-line Liturgical Resources

Orthodox Church and Bible Study Links

Orthodox Theological Resources

Friday, November 27, 2009


First and foremost on every topic: the Holy Scriptures and the Church Fathers.


The Orthodox Church - Metropolitan Kallistos (Timothy Ware)


Atheist Delusions: The Christian Revolution and Its Fashionable Enemies - David Bentley Hart

Church History:

Story of Christianity: An Illustrated History of 2000 Years of the Christian Faith - David Bentley Hart

How the Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland's Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe - Thomas Cahill


Epiphanius of Salamis, Doctor of Iconoclasm? Deconstruction of a Myth - Fr. Steven Bigham

Early Christian Attitudes Toward Images - Fr. Steven Bigham


The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels - Thomas Cahill

Whose Bible Is It?: A Short History of the Scriptures - Jaroslav Pelikan


The Way of a Pilgrim

The Mountain of Silence: A Search for Orthodox Spirituality - Kyriacos C. Markides

St. Gregory Palamas and Orthodox Spirituality - Fr. John Meyendorff

The Illumined Heart: Capture the Vibrant Faith of the Ancient Christians - Frederica Mathewes-Green

Virgin Mary (Theotokos):

Mary Through the Centuries: Her Place in the History of Culture - Jaroslav Pelikan



Orthodox TV

Orthodoxy Now TV

David's Videos:

Introduction to Orthodoxy:
Myths of the Council of Nicaea:
Orthodoxy & Scripture:
History of Christianity:

The Fathers on Abortion

"Thou shalt not murder a child by abortion nor kill them when born." - Didache, 2, 2 (AD 60)

"Thou shalt not murder a child by abortion, nor again shalt thou kill it when it is born." - St. Barnabas, Letter of St. Barnabas, 19, 5 (AD 80)

"And when we say that those women who use drugs to bring on abortion commit murder, and will have to give an account to God for the abortion, on what principle should we commit murder? For it does not belong to the same person to regard the very fetus in the womb as a created being, and therefore an object of God's care, and when it has passed into life, to kill it; and not to expose an infant, because those who expose them are chargeable with child-murder, and on the other hand, when it has been reared to destroy it. But we are in all things always alike and the same, submitting ourselves to reason, and not ruling over it. " - Athenagoras of Athens, A Plea for the Christians, 35 (AD 175)

"In our case, murder being once for all forbidden, we may not destroy even the fetus in the womb, while as yet the human being derives blood from other parts of the body for its sustenance. To hinder a birth is merely a speedier man-killing; nor does it matter whether you take away a life that is born, or destroy one that is coming to the birth. That is a man which is going to be one; you have the fruit already in its seed." - Tertullian, The Apology, 9, 25 (AD 202)

"There are some [pagan] women who, by drinking medical preparations, extinguish the source of the future man in their very bowels, and thus commit a parricide before they bring forth. And these things assuredly come down from the teaching of your [pagan] gods." - Marcus Minucius Felix, Octavius, 30 (AD 210)

"Whence women, reputed believers, began to resort to drugs for producing sterility, and to gird themselves round, so to expel what was being conceived on account of their not wishing to have a child either by a slave or by any paltry fellow, for the sake of their family and excessive wealth. Behold, into how great impiety that lawless one has proceeded, by inculcating adultery and murder at the same time!" - St. Hippolytus of Rome, Refutation of All Heresies, 9, 7 (AD 210)

"Concerning women who commit fornication, and destroy that which they have conceived, or who are employed in making drugs for abortion, a former decree excluded them until the hour of death, and to this some have assented. Nevertheless, being desirous to use somewhat greater lenity, we have ordained that they fulfill ten years [of penance], according to the prescribed degrees." - Council of Ancyra, Canon 21 (AD 314)

"Women also who administer drugs to cause abortion, as well as those who take poisons to destroy unborn children, are murderesses. So much on this subject." - St. Basil the Great, Letter to Amphilochius (AD 347)

"Why then bring disgrace upon all these? Why sow where the ground makes it its care to destroy the fruit? where there are many efforts at abortion? where there is murder before the birth? for even the harlot thou dost not let continue a mere harlot, but makest her a murderess also. You see how drunkenness leads to whoredom, whoredom to adultery, adultery to murder; or rather to a something even worse than murder. For I have no name to give it, since it does not take off the thing born, but prevent its being born. Why then dost thou abuse the gift of God, and fight with His laws, and follow after what is a curse as if a blessing, and make the chamber of procreation a chamber for murder, and arm the woman that was given for childbearing unto slaughter? For with a view to drawing more money by being agreeable and an object of longing to her lovers, even this she is not backward to do, so heaping upon thy head a great pile of fire." - St. John Chrysostom, Homilies on Romans, 24 (AD 400)

The Fathers on the Eucharist as Sacrifice

"And on the Lord's own day gather yourselves together and break bread and give thanks, first confessing your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure." - Didache, 14, 1 (AD 60)

"Since then these things are manifest to us, and we have looked into the depths of the divine knowledge, we ought to do in order all things which the Master commanded us to perform at appointed times. He commanded us to celebrate sacrifices and services, and that it should not be thoughtlessly or disorderly, but at fixed times and hours." - St. Clement of Rome, Letter to the Corinthians, 40, 1-2 (AD 95)

"Accordingly, God, anticipating all the sacrifices which we offer through this name, and which Jesus the Christ enjoined us to offer, in the Eucharist of the bread and the cup, and which are presented by Christians in all places throughout the world, bears witness that they are well-pleasing to Him." - St. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 117 (AD 150)

"And what have I to do with holocausts, which God does not stand in need of?--though indeed it does behove us to offer a bloodless sacrifice and reasonable service." - Athenagoras of Athens, A Plea for the Christians, 8 (AD 175)

"Listen to what happened in my presence, before my very eyes. There was a baby girl, whose parents had fled and had, in their fear, rather improvidently lift it in the charge of its nurse. The nurse took the helpless child to the magistrates. There, before the idol where the crowds were flocking, as it was too young to eat the flesh, they gave it some bread dipped in what was left of the wine offered by those who had already doomed themselves. Later, the mother recovered her child. But the girl could not reveal or tell the wicked thing that had been done, any more than she had been able to understand or ward it off before. Thus, when the mother brought her in with her while we were offering the Sacrifice, it was through ignorance that this mischance occurred. But the infant, in the midst of the faithful, resenting the prayer and the offering we were making, began to cry convulsively, struggling and tossing in a veritable brain-storm, and for all its tender age and simplicity of soul, was confessing, as if under torture, in every way it could, its consciousness of the misdeed. Moreover, when the sacred rites were completed and the deacon began ministering to those present, when its turn came to receive, it turned its little head away as if sensing the divine presence, it closed its mouth, held its lips tight, and refused to drink from the chalice. The deacon persisted and, in spite of its opposition, poured in some of the consecrated chalice. There followed choking and vomiting. The Eucharist could not remain in a body or mouth that was defiled; the drink which had been sanctified by Our Lord's blood returned from the polluted stomach. So great is the power of the Lord, and so great His majesty!" - St. Cyprian of Carthage, On the Lapsed, 25 (AD 254)

"Heaven is full, and full is the earth with your magnificent glory, Lord of Virtues. Full also is this Sacrifice, with your strength and your communion; for to You we offer this living Sacrifice, this unbloody oblation." - St. Serapion of Thmuis, Sacramentary, 13 (AD 350)

"Then, after the spiritual sacrifice, the bloodless service, is completed, over that sacrifice of propitiation we entreat God for the common peace of the Churches, for the welfare of the world; for kings; for soldiers and allies; for the sick; for the afflicted; and, in a word, for all who stand in need of succour we all pray and offer this sacrifice." - St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, 23, 8 (AD 350)

"This Sacrifice, no matter who offers it, be it Peter or Paul, is always the same as that which Christ gave His disciples and which priests now offer: The offering of today is in no way inferior to that which Christ offered, because it is not men who sanctify the offering of today; it is the same Christ who sanctified His own. For just as the words which God spoke are the very same as those which the priest now speaks, so too the oblation is the very same." - St. John Chrysostom, Homilies on 2 Timothy, 2 (AD 397)

"For the whole Church observes this practice which was handed down by the Fathers: that it prayers for those who have died in the communion of the Body and Blood of Christ, when they are commemorated in their own place in the sacrifice itself; and the sacrifice is offered also in memory of them on their behalf." - St. Augustine of Hippo, Homilies, 172, 2 (AD 400)

The Fathers on Closed Communion of the Eucharist

The Orthodox practice of allowing only those who are Baptized and Chrismated members of the Church to partake of the Eucharist is an ancient one.

"But let no one eat or drink of this Eucharistic thanksgiving, but they that have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord hath said: 'Give not that which is holy to the dogs.'" - Didache, 9, 10-12 (AD 60)

"And this food is called among us the Eucharist, of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh." - St. Justin Martyr, First Apology, 66 (AD 150)

"And when a certain one, who himself was defiled, dared with the rest to receive secretly a part of the sacrifice celebrated by the priest; he could not eat nor handle the holy of the Lord, but found in his hands when opened that he had a cinder. Thus by the experience of one it was shown that the Lord withdraws when He is denied; nor does that which is received benefit the undeserving for salvation, since saving grace is changed by the departure of the sanctity into a cinder." - St. Cyprian of Carthage, On the Lapsed, 26 (AD 254)

"His poverty enriches, the fringe of His garment heals, His hunger satisfies, His death gives life, His burial gives resurrection. Therefore, He is a rich treasure, for His bread is rich. And 'rich' is apt for one who has eaten this bread will be unable to feel hunger. He gave it to the Apostles to distribute to a believing people, and today He gives it to us, for He, as a priest, daily consecrates it with His own words. Therefore, this bread has become the food of the saints." - St. Ambrose of Milan, On the Patriarchs, 9, 38 (AD 390)

St. Ignatius of Antioch

St. Ignatius of Antioch was born in about AD 30. As a young child, he briefly met Christ, being the child that Christ called to him when he proclaimed "unless you are converted and become as little children you shall by no means enter the Kingdom of Heaven" (Matthew 18:2-5).

Later, he became a disciple of St. John the Apostle alongside St. Polycarp of Smyrna. He became the third Bishop of Antioch after the death of the previous Bishop, St. Evodius. Ignatius was also known as "Theophorus" (Greek, meaning "God-bearer") both because he had been held by Christ as a child and because he was known for carrying God in his heart and having the gift of unceasing prayer.

In AD 106, the Roman emperor Trajan proclaimed a period of thanksgiving to the pagan gods after his victories in war. When he found out that the Bishop of Antioch was openly defying his orders and encouraging others to do so, he had Ignatius arrested and sent to Rome to die by being eaten by lions in the arena.

During his voyage from Antioch to Rome in AD 107 to be martyred, Ignatius visited with Christian communities at each place he stopped and wrote seven letters, six to various churches and one to his friend St. Polycarp of Smyrna, all seven of which survive to this day.

Upon his arrival in Rome, Ignatius was greeted by the sorrowful Christian community there. He found out that certain individuals in this community were attempting to have him pardoned and responded by ordering them to desist from their efforts and allow him to be martyred for Christ.

As he was marched to the arena, Ignatius unceasingly repeated the name of Jesus Christ. When he was asked by one of the guard one he did this, he replied that this Name was written on his heart and he confessed with his lips what he carried in his heart.

When he entered the arena, he proclaimed to the people present: "Men of Rome, you know that I am sentenced to death, not because of any crime, but because of my love for God, by Whose love I am embraced. I long to be with Him, and offer myself to him as a pure loaf, made of fine wheat ground fine by the teeth of wild beasts." He was martyred by being eaten by lions, who left only a few bones and his heart, inscribed with the name of Jesus Christ, untouched. These holy and precious relics were rescued from the pagans by the Christian community of Rome, where they remain to this day, venerated by the faithful from all over the world.

The Church celebrates the feast day of St. Ignatius of Antioch, the Holy God-Bearer and Hieromartyr, on 20 December.

The Fathers on the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

"They [the heterodox] abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, because they do not confess the Eucharist to be the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the Father, of His goodness, raised up again." - St. Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Smyrnaeans, 7 (AD 107)

"And this food is called among us the Eucharist, of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh." - St. Justin Martyr, First Apology, 66 (AD 150)

"For we offer to Him His own, announcing consistently the fellowship and union of the flesh and Spirit. For as the bread, which is produced from the earth, when it receives the invocation of God, is no longer common bread, but the Eucharist, consisting of two realities, earthly and heavenly; so also our bodies, when they receive the Eucharist, are no longer corruptible, having the hope of the resurrection to eternity." - St. Irenaeus of Lyons, Against Heresies, 4, 18, 5 (AD 180)

"And the blood of the Lord is twofold. For there is the blood of His flesh, by which we are redeemed from corruption; and the spiritual, that by which we are anointed. And to drink the blood of Jesus, is to become partaker of the Lord's immortality; the Spirit being the energetic principle of the Word, as blood is of flesh. Accordingly, as wine is blended with water, so is the Spirit with man. And the one, the mixture of wine and water, nourishes to faith; while the other, the Spirit, conducts to immortality. And the mixture of both--of the water and of the Word--is called Eucharist, renowned and glorious grace; and they who by faith partake of it are sanctified both in body and soul. For the divine mixture, man, the Father's will has mystically compounded by the Spirit and the Word. For, in truth, the spirit is joined to the soul, which is inspired by it; and the flesh, by reason of which the Word became flesh, to the Word." - St. Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor of Children, 2, 2 (AD 200)

"When, therefore, He says, that whoever shall eat of His bread shall live for ever; as it is manifest that those who partake of His body and receive the Eucharist by the right of communion are living, so, on the other hand, we must fear and pray lest any one who, being withheld from communion, is separate from Christ’s body should remain at a distance from salvation; as He Himself threatens, and says, 'Unless ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye shall have no life in you.' And therefore we ask that our bread—that is, Christ—may be given to us daily, that we who abide and live in Christ may not depart from His sanctification and body." - St. Cyprian of Carthage, On the Lord's Prayer, 18 (AD 250)

"Our Lord Jesus took in His hands what in the beginning was only bread; and He blessed it, and signed it, and made it holy in the name of the Father and in the name of the Spirit; and He broke it and in His gracious kindness He distributed it to all His disciples one by one. He called the bread His living Body, and did Himself fill it with Himself and the Spirit. And extending His hand, He gave them the Bread which His right hand had made holy: 'Take, all of you eat of this; which My word has made holy. Do not now regard as bread that which I have given you; but take, eat this Bread, and do not scatter the crumbs; for what I have called My Body, that it is indeed. One particle from its crumbs is able to sanctify thousands and thousands, and is sufficient to afford life to those who eat of it. Take, eat, entertaining no doubt of faith, because this is My Body, and whoever eats it in belief eats in it Fire and Spirit. But if any doubter eat of it, for him it will be only bread. And whoever eats in belief the Bread made holy in My name, if he be pure, he will be preserved in his purity; and if he be a sinner, he will be forgiven.' But if anyone despise it or reject it or treat it with ignominy, it may be taken as certainty that he treats with ignominy the Son, who called it and actually made it to be His Body." - St. Ephrem of Syria, Homilies, 4, 4 (AD 350)

"For as to what we say concerning the reality of Christ’s nature within us, unless we have been taught by Him, our words are foolish and impious. For He says Himself, 'My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. He that eateth My flesh and drinketh My blood abideth in Me, and I in him.' As to the verity of the flesh and blood there is no room left for doubt. For now both from the declaration of the Lord Himself and our own faith, it is verily flesh and verily blood. And these when eaten and drunk, bring it to pass that both we are in Christ and Christ in us. Is not this true? Yet they who affirm that Christ Jesus is not truly God are welcome to find it false. He therefore Himself is in us through the flesh and we in Him, whilst together with Him our own selves are in God." - St. Hilary of Poitiers, On the Trinity, 8, 14 (AD 356)

"You shall see the Levites [Deacons] bringing loaves and a cup of wine, and placing them on the table. So long as the prayers of supplication and entreaties have not been made, there is only bread and wine. But after the great and wonderful prayers have been completed, then the bread is become the Body, and the wine the Blood, of our Lord Jesus Christ." - St. Athanasius the Great, Homily to the Newly-Baptized (AD 370)

"Since then He Himself declared and said of the Bread, 'This is My Body,' who shall dare to doubt any longer? And since He has Himself affirmed and said, 'This is My Blood,' who shall ever hesitate, saying, that it is not His blood?" - St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, 22, 1 (AD 370)

"We see that the Saviour took [the bread] in His hands, as it is in the Gospel, when He was reclining at the supper; and He took this, and giving thanks, He said: 'This is really Me.' And He gave to His disciples and said: 'This is really Me.' And we see that It is not equal nor similar, not to the incarnate image, not to the invisible divinity, not to the outline of His limbs. For It is round of shape, and devoid of feeling. As to Its power, He means to say even of Its grace, 'This is really Me.'; and none disbelieves His word. For anyone who does not believe the truth in what He says is deprived of grace and of a Savior." - St. Epiphanius of Salamis, The Man Well-Anchored, 57 (AD 374)

"The bread is at first common bread; but when the mystery sanctifies it, it is called and actually becomes the Body of Christ." - St. Gregory of Nyssa, Orations and Sermons (AD 383)

"Perhaps you will say, 'I see something else, how is it that you assert that I receive the Body of Christ?' And this is the point which remains for us to prove. And what evidence shall we make use of? Let us prove that this is not what nature made, but what the blessing consecrated, and the power of blessing is greater than that of nature, because by blessing nature itself is changed." - St. Ambrose of Milan, On the Mysteries, 9, 50 (AD 390)

"It is not the power of man which makes what is put before us the Body and Blood of Christ, but the power of Christ Himself who was crucified for us. The priest standing there in the place of Christ says these words but their power and grace are from God. 'This is My Body,' he says, and these words transform what lies before him." - St. John Chrysostom, Homilies on the Treachery of Judas, 1,6 (AD 400)

"You ought to know what you have received, what you are going to receive, and what you ought to receive daily. That Bread which you see on the altar, having been sanctified by the word of God, is the Body of Christ. The chalice, or rather, what is in that chalice, having been sanctified by the word of God, is the Blood of Christ." - St. Augustine of Hippo, Homilies, 227, 21

"Christ said, indicating [the bread and wine]: 'This is My Body,' and 'This is My Blood,' in order that you might not judge what you see to be a mere figure. The offerings, by the hidden power of God Almighty, are changed into Christ's Body and Blood, and by receiving these we come to share in the life-giving and sanctifying efficacy of Christ." - St. Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew, 26-27 (AD 428)
Wednesday, November 25, 2009

Meet the Fathers

Who are the Fathers?

The term "Church Fathers" refers to the great theologians, writers, mystics, and apologists of the Church throughout history and even today. This section will be focusing on those highly influential figures of the first five centuries of Christianity who are often called "Early Church Fathers." The Fathers of this early, formative period of the Church, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, combated frequent pernicious heresies, formulated and standardized theology and worship, and even gave us the Bible!

A special and greatly honored class of Church Fathers, called the "Apostolic Fathers," are those Fathers who lived in the first and second centuries. As the title of this class implies, many of the Apostolic Fathers were friends and disciples of Apostles. Some, such as St. Polycarp of Smyrna and St. Ignatius of Antioch, were appointed directly by Apostles to take over leadership of the Church after the passing of the Apostles. The writings of the Apostolic Fathers are our greatest source of information on the early Christians' beliefs and practices.

Meet the Fathers...

St. Ignatius of Antioch (ca. AD 30 - 107)
St. Justin the Philosopher (ca. AD 100 - 165)

What did the Fathers say about...


The EucharistFree WillPrayers to the Saints

Sola ScripturaThe Virgin Mary as the New Eve

Myths of the Council of Nicaea

In these five videos, I explore and debunk some of the common myths surrounding the Council of Nicaea, as propagated by books like The Da Vinci Code, movies like Zeitgeist, and groups like the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Mormons. The myths I address in these videos are:

1. Constantine headed the Council and/or dictated its decrees.
2. Nicaea determined the canon of the New Testament and had other books destroyed.
3. The Bishops at Nicaea betrayed the true Christian Faith.
4. Constantine the Great was a pagan when he convoked and attended the Council of Nicaea.
5. The Arians were the true Christians, the "Orthodox" were the heretics.
6. The Council of Nicaea invented the Divinity of Christ.
7. After Nicaea, the Church was used as a tool for the political power of Rome, justifying its wars and atrocities.

Saint Constantine the Great
Christ's Divinity, Part 1

Christ's Divinity, Part 2
Church and State

The Truth about the Council

Learn about Orthodoxy

About the Society

The Society for Orthodox Apologetics was formed in November 2009 with the intent of creating a website which would provide those inquiring into Orthodoxy with information and answers to questions, provide an Orthodox perspective on modern issues, and address the claims of various heterodox, heretical, and anti-Christian organizations and individuals.

The Society's members are:

John Norman

I was raised Baptist but in my high school to early college years became heavily influenced by the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. Around my sophomore year in college was when I started getting into a lot of arguments with my friends on such issues as the Sabbath, the Trinity, Baptism, once saved always saved...etc. These talks eventually led me to the Early Church Fathers for some of my friends who were Seventh Day Adventists and Oneness Pentecostals would bring up church history when our talks over scripture didn't go anywhere. And I've been reading them ever since. I tried to become Orthodox back when I first started reading the Fathers in 1997/1998, but the church I called in the phone book never returned my phone call. It was hard to remain Protestant when I embraced a high view of the Mysteries. I tried the Episcopal Church for awhile, but left after my Episcopal influences started to crumble. It was extremely difficult to partake of communion in other protestant churches. My conscience wouldn't allow it. So I went East. I finally became Orthodox the day before Pascha of 2007. This time around I found a priest online who guided me on what to do and who to contact.

John a.k.a. Chris

Faceless, nameless, mysterious Austrian Orthodox Christian (no wonder he decided to become a member of an apophatic mystery-religion like Eastern Orthodoxy in the first place), and a huge fan of Saint John Chrysostom.

Thomas Seraphim Hamilton a.k.a. Kabane the Christian

Hey, I'm Tommy. I'm 15 and I have two YouTube channels: Kabane52, defending evolution, and KabaneTheChristian, defending Christianity. At this point in time, I prefer my second channel, as I have come to enjoy apologetics far more than evolution. Apologetics will be the primary focus of this blog, where we'll be discussing the issues of apologetics and the evidence for Christianity, and I hope you'll enjoy it!


My name is Craciun Lucian, and I'm a Romanian Orthodox Christian, just like any other of the over 86% of Romanians, who are also Orthodox Christians. (In other words, I'm special: just like everybody else). My entire life has been a journey from being a failed perfectionist to becoming a perfect failure. After almost two decades of education, I'm about to flunk the school of life. My existence has been foretold by Saint Paul the Apostle in his Letter to the Romans 7:19, where it says that the good that I would, I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do; and by Father Nicolae Steinhardt, in his Diary of Happiness, when he wrote: to Satan they consecrate their sinful life, and to Christ their speeches and writings praiseful of the purity most refined.

Richard A. Shaward

Hello, my name is Richard. My Christian journey has been one of 24 years length to this point. I am waiting to see what the Lord has in store for me now. I have been a bit depressed not Pastoring and Teaching (I am a teacher at heart – it drives me). Will I become an Orthodox Priest? I wait now. I wait in silence until I hear what is next. I hope it is not too long, as I am not getting any younger!





Christian Gifts

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